First Focal Plane vs. Second Focal Plane Rifle Scopes

Video first focal plane vs second focal plane ar-15

Researching rifle scopes, you’ll probably stumble across a few terms that may leave you scratching your head…

First focal plane and second focal plane, a.k.a. FFP and SFP.

Triple Scout Scopes
Triple Scout Scopes

If you’ve seen these terms, you’ve likely also noticed considerable price differences, reticle differences, and beyond.

That may leave you wondering, what’s the big deal? Why such a difference?

Luckily, we know our optics around here.

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Oh yes…we love optics!

So, in this article, we’re taking on FFP versus SFP. We’ll lay out the definitions of these two, what they mean for the inside of your optic, and which might be the best option for your rifle.

When we’re through, you’ll confidently know the difference between FFP and SFP and which one deserves your hard-earned cash.

Let’s get to it!

Understanding Subtensions

Before we dive into the difference between FFP and SFP, we need to first talk about subtensions…because they’re important!

Have you ever looked inside your optic to see hash marks or circles?

Well, those are subtensions, and we use them for windage and ballistic drop of a projectile.

Mini-14 (9)
Those little circles are subtensions.

They allow you to use holdovers to estimate bullet drop and windage.

Those subtensions are a specific size, so shooters can account for windage and ballistic drop at various ranges.

With that out of the way, let’s dive into FFP and SFP…


Let’s clarify that we’re looking exclusively at variable-powered optics when talking about FFP and SFP.

First Focal Plane

FFP, or first focal plane, has grown in popularity though they are somewhat new.

First focal plane scopes house the reticle assembly near the front of the magnification erector assembly.

EOTech Vudu Mounted
EOTech Vudu, a FFP scope.

The erector assembly houses your magnification component, and the reticle sits in front of it.

You’ll likely see most high-end optics companies offering FFP optics.

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With first focal plane optics, the reticle size changes as the magnification increases and decreases.

EOTech Vudu 5x
EOTech Vudu at 5x

FFP optics keep the measurements of the reticle accurate at any magnification range.

EOTech Vudu 25x
EOTech Vudu at 25x.

FFP’s use of reticle subtensions at every magnification setting is the FFP’s biggest advantage, my friends.

With high-powered optics, like 6-24X and beyond, this becomes extremely valuable.

Making on the fly windage and elevation calls is invaluable!

PSA AR-10 Gen 3 Handguard
PSA AR-10 with PSA 6-24x scope.

When it comes to reticles that use ballistic drop compensation, a first focal plane scope is a must-have.

This allows on-the-fly ballistic drop compensation without the worry or need for finding the right magnification setting.

Another big advantage is that at higher magnification levels, the subtensions are accurate and easy to see.

FFP scopes have some downsides, though.


At close range, the reticle can appear very small and hard to see. Combine that with low light issues, and the reticle can get awfully hard to see.

For lower-powered optics, the usefulness of an FFP reticle declines.

Second Focal Plane

SFP, or second focal plane, optics house the reticle behind the erector tube assembly.

Shooting the Strike Eagle
Shooting with the Strike Eagle, a SFP scope.

SFP optics tend to feature affordable price tags while offering comparative specs in quality, magnification, durability, etc.

Something Of a Poor

With second focal plane optics, the reticle remains the same size throughout its magnification range.

Strike Eagle 4x
Strike Eagle 4x

Consequently, the reticle’s various subtensions aren’t accurate through the range of magnification.

Strike Eagle 24x
Strike Eagle 24x

Often SFP scopes have a specific magnification in which these measurements are accurate.

That magnification range is often the highest setting but can vary between manufacturers. So, it’s wise to check the manual to be sure.

You can also do a little math with an SFP scope and various magnification ratings to come up with accurate measurements.

Hangover Math Gif
Me at the range calculating in my head…

These optics use highly visible reticles at every magnification setting. This makes the optic easier to use at lower powered settings.

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With low powered optics, like 1-4X optics, an SFP reticle is easy to use for close-range shooting. It’s big, easy to see, and fast.

Trijicon Accupower 1-4x in a BOBRO QD mount.
Trijicon Accupower 1-4x in a BOBRO QD mount.

The downsides are apparent.

SFP subtensions suffer at every magnification range but one. This makes higher-powered SFP optics nowhere near as fast or as useful for on-the-fly long-range shots.

Thumb on top of the grip, you don
SFP optics…not so great for long range shooting.

You Should Definitely Buy…

FFP optics are surely the better choice, right?

Well, it’s never that simple, y’all.

Notebook Simple

FFP and SFP are important, sure, but they shouldn’t be the only factor to consider when shopping for scopes.

You also should look at overall scope quality — including clarity, durability, and reticle design.

On top of that, think about the optic’s purpose and at what ranges you’ll use it.

That will help guide your hand and selection between FFP and SFP.

Daniel Defense DDM4V7 Desert Shooting
Runnin’ and gunnin’ in the desert will require a different scope than long distance shots from prone.

When to Buy an SFP

If you want a lower-powered LPVO, then SFP is the way to go.

The bigger reticle is faster for close-range shots, and long-range shots will max out the magnification, so the subtensions are accurate.

A 1-4 or 1.5-5 is perfect with an SFP reticle design.

BCM with Primary Arms 1-6x ACSS
BCM with Primary Arms 1-6x ACSS SFP.

This is especially true when paired with a little carbine in a pistol caliber or something like a 10.5-inch barreled AR.

These are not long-range firearms by any means and work best in close quarters shooting where speed rules.

The bigger SFP reticles are fast at close range because they tend to be bigger than most.

Illuminated Primary Arms 1-6x ACSS Reticle
Illuminated Primary Arms 1-6x ACSS Reticle

Hunting is another realm where SFP is important.

Humane hunting ranges are not going to involve much bullet drop. Therefore, the accuracy of subtensions or even their presence is silly.

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When a hunter chooses an optic, they need to consider not only their furthest shot but their closest shot.

Close shots often rely on speed, and big reticles are fast reticles.

There is a good argument for SFP optics for 3-Gun and USPSA PCC.

The ranges these competitors engage at are rarely long, and the need for ballistic drop estimation is often unnecessary.

Need some suggestions? Check out our roundup of the Best 1-6x Scopes & LPVO.

When to Buy an FFP Optic

First focal plane scopes are the optic of choice for snipers and designated marksmen. In those roles, precision is critical.

Vortex Razor Gen 3 1-10X down sight
Vortex Razor Gen 3 1-10X down sight

The FFP optics are the best choice for duty grade use and when you need to reach out and touch a target with extreme accuracy.

FFP scopes also fit very well into Precision Rifle Series matches.

km precision rifle training 3
Precision rifle training.

These scopes dominate this field because the ranges are so varied. Competitors need to place accurate shots at different ranges while compensating for wind and drop.

If you want to shoot long range almost exclusively, then go for an FFP optic over an SFP.

If you need some suggestions, we have you covered. Check out our list of the Best Long Range Rifle Scopes.


Whether you want the close range SFP offers or want to reach out to further distances with FFP, knowing the difference between FFP and SFP optics will help you get the most out of your shooting experience.

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SFP or FFP, which do you prefer? Let us know in the comments below. Ready to start nailing down which optics to buy? Head over to our Gun Scopes & Optics page where you will find all the articles you need to choose your next optic.

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Ethan Smith is a seasoned marine veteran, professional blogger, witty and edgy writer, and an avid hunter. He spent a great deal of his childhood years around the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona. Watching active hunters practise their craft initiated him into the world of hunting and rubrics of outdoor life. He also honed his writing skills by sharing his outdoor experiences with fellow schoolmates through their high school’s magazine. Further along the way, the US Marine Corps got wind of his excellent combination of skills and sought to put them into good use by employing him as a combat correspondent. He now shares his income from this prestigious job with his wife and one kid. Read more >>